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By Martin Kusch

Martin Kusch places forth arguable rules: that wisdom is a social prestige (like funds or marriage) and that wisdom is essentially the ownership of teams instead of participants. He defends the novel implications of his perspectives: that wisdom is political, and that it varies with groups. This daring method of epistemology is a problem to philosophy and the broader educational international.

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In this book I shall not follow my own advice, however. I want to make sure that epistemologists see the relevance of my suggestions and criticisms for their work on testimony. I fear that my reform of the vocabulary would reduce that probability; my changing of words might be misunderstood as my changing the subject. Unless otherwise indicated, ‘testimony’ for me will be roughly synonymous with ‘(learning from) communication’. My insistence on ‘performatives’ as a form of testimony is not just motivated by a desire for a more complete coverage of different forms of speech.

Step 4. If we know someone's language, then we have a way of determining what they believe. And if we know what someone's beliefs are, we can figure out what their sounds mean. This leaves the case where we know neither beliefs nor meanings. According to Davidson, we can eventually find out the speaker's meanings and beliefs even in such extreme or ‘radical’ situations: ‘radical interpretation’ is possible. Suppose that you find yourself alone on a remote island with a native; the two of you share no language; and you have no inkling as to what sort of belief system your new neighbour possesses.

And Pragmatics. How do we talk about, and justify, the adoption of testimonial beliefs? g. sociological questions and questions 14 By ‘phenomenology’ I here simply mean introspective experience. INFERENTIALISM AND CONTRA 21 concerning linguistic usage). In the debate over inferentialism, however, this practice has been a source of confusion. I have two further criticisms relating to this debate, and both are really diagnoses of epistemological individualism. The participants in the debate over inferentialism regularly commit the sins of ‘psychologistic reification’ and ‘social dilution’.

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