By J.C. Dagar, P.C. Sharma, D.K. Sharma, A.K. Singh
The land degradation because of salinity and waterlogging is a world phenomenon, afflicting approximately a thousand million hectares in the sovereign borders of not less than seventy five international locations. along with gazing the nutrition defense, it has a ways attaining and unacceptable socio-economic effects in view that a wide percentage of this land is inhabited via smallholder farmers. The anthropogenic-environmental alterations and the weather swap are extra including to the matter of salinity and waterlogging. The phenomenon of sea-level upward push will deliver extra parts lower than waterlogged salinity as a result of inundation by way of sea water. hence, facing the salinity in fact is changing into a hugely arduous activity because of its advanced nature, uncertainty and differential temporal and spatial affects. however, with the necessity to supply extra foodstuff, feed, gasoline, fodder and fiber to the increasing inhabitants, and non-availability of latest effective land, there's a desire for productiveness enhancement of those lands. in reality, the salt-affected and waterlogged lands can't be overlooked due to the fact large investments were made in the course of the international within the improvement of irrigation and drainage infrastructure. The social, fiscal and environmental charges being excessive for theon-and/off-farm reclamation strategies, saline agriculture together with agroforestry inculcated with sleek leading edge strategies, is now rising as a possible instrument not just for arresting salinity and waterlogging yet for different environmental providers like mitigate weather switch, sequester carbon and biodiversity recovery. This ebook makes an attempt to deal with quite a lot of matters, ideas and practices regarding the salinity focused on rehabilitation of waterlogged saline soils and really apt use of saline waters together with sea water. a few of the web site particular case reports normal to the saline setting together with coastal ecologies maintaining productiveness, rendering environmental companies, retaining biodiversity and mitigating weather swap were defined intimately. Written through best researchers and specialists in their personal fields, the e-book is a needs to, not just for salinity specialists but additionally for coverage makers, environmentalists, scholars and educationists alike. extra importantly, it contributes to reversing the salinity traits and teaches to maintain with salinity making sure the livelihood of resource-poor farming households leaving in harsh ecologies together with coastal parts that are extra prone to weather change.
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The land degradation because of salinity and waterlogging is a world phenomenon, afflicting approximately a billion hectares in the sovereign borders of no less than seventy five international locations. along with observing the meals safety, it has some distance achieving and unacceptable socio-economic outcomes due to the fact a wide percentage of this land is inhabited via smallholder farmers.
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Extra info for Innovative Saline Agriculture
5, ECe 10–15 dS mÀ1, SAR 116) concluded that Eucalyptus camaldulensis was the most successful species under a variety of salinity conditions, while Leucaena leucocephala was the most aggressive species especially under moderate salinity conditions. Tamarix articulata showed rapid growth under light salinity. In agroforestry, forest or fruit trees are raised in wider spaces (row to row 4–5 m, plant to plant 4 m) and the arable crops are cultivated in the interspaces. In one trial, Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), wheat, onion (Allium sativum) and garlic (Allium cepa) could be grown successfully for 3 years as intercrops with fruit trees Carissa carandas, Punica granatum, Emblica ofﬁcinalis, Psidium guajava, Syzygium cuminii and Ziziphus mauritiana.
6 Mg haÀ1. 5 Mg haÀ1 (Jeet Ram et al. 2011). 5 Mg haÀ1 biomass, showing its potential in waterlogged areas. 5 Source: Dagar et al. 6 Climate Change vis-a-vis Saline Agriculture: Impact and Adaptation Strategies crop in time. 6 Mg haÀ1 in block plantation after 6 years of plantation (Table 8). The effect of trees on seepage on saline vertisols revealed that higher seepage from canal was observed in control (without trees and grasses) as compared to when planted with different species. 22 m canopy width) effectively intercepted (86 %) incoming seepage from canal as compared to control.
Other lines with submergence tolerance have been released as Samba Mahsuri-Sub1 in Nepal, IR 64-Sub1 in the Philippines and Indonesia, BR-11-Sub1 in Bangladesh and Ciherang-Sub1 in Indonesia. Many other lines are in pipeline. These varieties have made perennially ﬂooded area ﬂourish with rice, which were otherwise kept fallow. Recently, Singh et al. (2014) explained physiological basis of tolerance to complete submergence in rice which involves genetic factors in addition to the Sub1 gene and suggested the possibility of further improvements in submergence tolerance by incorporating additional traits present in FR13A or other similar landraces.