By René E.Van Grieken, Andrzej A. Markowicz, Rene Van Grieken, A. Markowicz
Updates basics and purposes of all modes of x-ray spectrometry. Promotes the exact size of samples whereas decreasing the scattered heritage within the x-ray spectrum.
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Extra info for Handbook of X-Ray Spectrometry Revised and Expanded
It represents the probability that a photon, passing through a target containing one electron per square centimeter, will be scattered at an angle y into a solid angle dO in a plane making an angle b with respect to the plane containing the electrical vector of the incident wave: dsKN r20 hn 2 hn0 hn 2 2 þ ¼ À 2 sin y cos b dO pp 2 hn0 hn hn0 cm2 electron Á sr ð67Þ The cross section has its maximum value for b ¼ 90 , indicating that the photon and electron tend to be scattered at right angles to the electrical vector of the incident radiation.
Table 1 Classiﬁcation of Photon Interactions Scattering Type of interaction Interaction with atomic electrons Interaction with nucleus or bound nucleons Interaction with electrical field surrounding charged particles Interactions with mesons Absorption Elastic (coherent) Inelastic (incoherent) Multiphoton eﬀects Photoelectric effecta $ Z4 low energy t $ Z5 high energy Nuclear photoelectric effect: reactions (g, n) (g, p), photofission $Z (E ! 10 MeV) 1. Electron–positron pair production in field of nucleous, $ Z2 (E !
10 MeV) 1. Electron–positron pair production in field of nucleous, $ Z2 (E ! 02 MeV) 2. Electron–positron pair production in electron field $Z (E ! 04 MeV) 3. Nucleon–antinucleon pair production (E ! 3 GeV) Photomeson production (E ! 150 MeV) Rayleigh scatteringa sR $ Z2 Compton scatteringa sC $ Z Two-photon Compton scattering $Z Nuclear coherent scattering (g, g) $ Z2 Nuclear Compton scattering (g, g0 ) $Z Delbru¨ck scattering $ Z4 Coherent resonant scattering (g, g) a Major effects of photon attenuation in matter, which are of great importance in practical x-ray spectrometry.