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By Joel Kaye

Highbrow advancements pioneered by way of scholastic typical philosophers of the fourteenth century constituted a serious level within the emergence of medical idea. underneath those technical advancements lay a profound reconceptualization of nature. the aim of this e-book is to research the elements of this reconceptualization, and to invest at the impacts that formed it. It argues that the transformation of the conceptual version of the flora and fauna c. 1260-1380 used to be strongly motivated through the speedy monetization of ecu society through the similar interval.

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Extra info for Economy and Nature in the Fourteenth Century: Money, Market Exchange, and the Emergence of Scientific Thought

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One of the most strenuous duties assigned to the fellows at Merton College was the yearly journey to oversee and administer the most northern properties – a journey of well over  miles, requiring more than eight days’ travel each way. Performing this office on behalf of the college in  or  was the logician and natural philosopher William ⁸⁴ See Bradwardine, Thomas of Bradwardine. His ‘‘Tractatus de proportionibus’’: Its Significance for the Development of Mathematical Physics, H. Lamar Crosby, Jr.

Note the legal requirement for the citizen to reason and act proportionally – proportionality defined here as numbered ratios of old and new coin values. ),  vols. (Paris, ), vol. , : ‘‘Occasione mutationis monetae debilis in fortem, damnosa seditio, praecipue propter locationes domorum, Parisius exorta est. Cum enim cives Parisius locare domos, et earum locationis pretium in forti moneta, juxta regale statutum, recipere niterentur; (quod tamen communis populis multitudini grave nimium propter triplicationem consueti pretii videbatur) tandem aliqui ex popularibus ipsis tam contra regem quam contra cives conjuncti.

Such economic precocity on the part of Matthew can be explained partly by his background and personality, and partly by the advance in English royal bureaucracy, tax collection, monetization, and market development over that of France. As Matthew himself said, everyone in England, from baron to prelate to merchant to agricultural worker, was laboring under the ‘‘pestilential infection’’ of royal and papal taxation: Matthew Paris’ English History, vol. , . For the precocious development of English monetary and market consciousness as witnessed by Matthew’s accounts, see his inclusion of year-end observations on the shifting market prices for grain, bread, and wine in vol.

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