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By Stiansen, Endre; Guyer, Jane I.

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Seattle, 1966. Public Record Office. Records of the African Companies. T70. London, 1871. Quénum, Maximilien. Les ancêtres de la famille Quénum. Langres, 1981. —. Au pays des Fon, 3d ed. Paris, 1983. Repin, Dr. ” Le Tour du Monde 1, no. 1 (1863):65–112. C. Benin and the Europeans 1485–1897. London, 1969. Smith, William. A New Voyage to Guinea. London, 1744. Snelgrave, William. A New Account of Some Parts of Guinea. London, 1734. Souza, Simone de. La famille de Souza du Bénin–Togo. Cotonou, 1992.

When, in 1773, Abbé Demanet arrived at Portendick representing the Compagnie de Guyane to negotiate for the sale of some 500 tons of gum arabic, he had inadequate goods with which to proceed. The Idaw al-Hajj cleric authorized a large extension of credit, accepting Demanet’s promissory notes. The debt was never repaid in full by Demanet or by his commercial successors, and ultimately Mazamba Jakhumpa’s Western Sahelian clients, who were forced to absorb the losses, drove him into exile. Webb, Desert Frontier, 115.

84 Nehemia Levtzion, “Ibn Hawqal, the Cheque and Awdaghost,” Journal of African History 9, no. 2 (1968):223–33. 85 It is doubtful, however, whether the use of such Arabic bills of exchange ever spread southwards into the Dahomey area. Literate Muslim traders certainly operated there, and one of these in 1845 gave a British explorer a written letter of introduction to another Muslim merchant trading for slaves in the interior,86 but there is no specific evidence of commercial letters of credit in Arabic.

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