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By Karl Popper

Conjectures and Refutations is considered one of Karl Popper's such a lot wide-ranging and well known works, amazing not just for its acute perception into the best way clinical wisdom grows, but in addition for making use of these insights to politics and to heritage. It offers one of many clearest and so much obtainable statements of the elemental concept that guided his paintings: not just our wisdom, yet our goals and our criteria, develop via an endless strategy of trial and blunder.

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____________________ 6Wittgenstein's example of a nonsensical pseudo-proposition is: ' Socrates is identical'. Obviously, ' Socrates is not identical' must also be nonsense. Thus the negation of any nonsense will be nonsense, and that of a meaningful statement will be meaningful. g. pp. ) and later by my critics. The confusion caused by taking testability as a criterion of meaning rather than of demarcation can easily be imagined. 7The most recent example of the way in which the history of this problem is misunderstood is A.

Never mind the source, or the sources, from which it may spring--there are many possible sources, and I may not be aware of half of them; and origins or pedigrees have in any case little bearing upon truth. 'This answer 10 applies, strictly speaking, only if the question is asked about some scientific assertion as distinct from an historical one. If my conjecture was an historical one, sources (in the non-ultimate sense) will of course come into the critical discussion of its validity. Yet fundamentally, my answer will be the same, as we have seen.

This amounts to a crude verifiability criterion of demarcation. ' For this approach, then, verifiability, meaningfulness, and scientific character all coincide. I personally was never interested in the so-called problem of meaning; on the contrary, it appeared to me a verbal problem, a typical pseudo-problem. e. in finding a criterion of the scientific character of theories. It was just this interest which made me see at once that Wittgenstein's verifiability criterion of meaning was intended to play the part of a criterion of demarcation as well; and which made me see that, as such, it was totally inadequate, even if all misgivings about the dubious concept of meaning were set aside.

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