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By Bart Geerts, Edward Linacre

Climates and climate defined integrates climatology and meteorology to provide a entire advent to the learn of the ambience. transparent motives of easy ideas, thoughts and approaches are supported via a wealth of hugely informative illustrations and an array of case stories. The authors of this leading edge textbook/CD package deal provide helpful new insights into topical environmental matters together with weather swap, international warming, dangers, sustainable inhabitants, environmental degradation, agriculture and drought. offering assets for functional paintings and extra complicated learn, the CD-ROM positive factors: over one hundred seventy additional medical "Notes", with 60 extra illustrations and tables; interactive numerical, a number of selection and useful workouts and self-assessment assessments; prolonged courses to additional analyzing; prolonged word list; instructing feedback and courses; hypertext presentation and huge cross-referencing; transparent navigation, print-out and obtain innovations.

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E. its shortwave reflectivity) may be either large or small, the reflectivity of longwave radiation is nearly zero for almost all materials. g. by clouds thicker than about 500 metres, or by the ground. Another difference between shortwave and LW radiations concerns their transmission through the atmosphere, as follows. Longwave radiation is emitted upwards by the ground and oceans and is called terrestrial radiation. 2), becoming warmed by the energy absorbed. B). Cloud droplets are particularly efficient absorbers and emitters of LW, and clouds which are thick enough to hide the Sun are completely opaque to LW.

E. 32 µm) and even shorter wavelength UV-C (sometimes called ‘vacuum’ or ‘far’ UV). The last penetrates in negligible amount down to sea-level; it is a hazard only on high mountains. 5 per cent of extra-terrestrial radiation and most is absorbed in the ozone layer. 5 per cent of the solar radiation at ground level is UV-B, but this small amount can be very harmful. The damage caused by UV-B includes sunburn, skin cancer and eye problems such as cataracts, both in people and in cattle. 15 The variation of the planetary albedo with latitude.

15. The slight maximum at the equator is due to the cloudiness there. m. m. on eight days in January and February 1985. 4), so that only around 6 per cent of the Sun’s radiation reaching the ground is ultra-violet radiation (UV), instead of 9 per cent at the top of the atmosphere. e. e. 32 µm) and even shorter wavelength UV-C (sometimes called ‘vacuum’ or ‘far’ UV). The last penetrates in negligible amount down to sea-level; it is a hazard only on high mountains. 5 per cent of extra-terrestrial radiation and most is absorbed in the ozone layer.

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