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By Henry F. Diaz

Glaciers within the Andes are relatively vital common documents of current and earlier climatic and environmental adjustments, in major half a result of N-S pattern of this topographic barrier and its impression at the atmospheric movement of the southern hemisphere. robust gradients within the seasonality and volume of precipitation exist among the equator and 30° S. huge changes in quantity east and west of the Andean divide additionally ensue, in addition to a transformation from tropical summer season precipitation (additionally transformed by way of the seasonal shift of the stream belts) to iciness precipitation within the west wind belt (e. g. , Yuille, 1999; Garraud and Aceituno, 2001). The so-called 'dry axis' lies among the tropical and additional­ tropical precipitation regimes (Figure 1). The excessive mountain barren region inside of this axis responds such a lot sensitively to the smallest alterations in powerful moisture. a huge hydro-meteorological characteristic on a seasonal to inter-annual time-scale is the incidence of EN SO occasions, which strongly regulate the mass stability of glaciers during this sector (e. g. , Wagnon et ai. , 2001; Francou et ai. , in press). The precipitation development is a vital issue for the translation of climatic and environmental files extracted from ice cores, simply because a lot of this knowledge is expounded to stipulations on the real time of precipitation, and this is often in particular so for strong isotope files. numerous ice cores have lately been drilled to bedrock during this sector. From Huascanin (Thompson et ai. , 1995), Sajama (Thompson et ai.

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C:() () ..... _____l Jon Feb lIor Apr Way Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Month ·· .. ·· .. ·30N-30S -'-'-NH ---SH Figure 9. Same as Figure 6, but for the period 1967-1999 for direct comparison with Figure 8. and the pattern of change resembles the change in surface air temperature that has been documented in other studies. The variations in temperature and FLH in the American tropics is strongly modulated by SST changes in the tropical Pacific associated with the ENSO phenomenon. Similar trends are found in the total snow covered area (SCA) in the Northern Hemisphere for the period 1967-1999.

These regions were defined in terms of Reanalysis gridpoints for which at least 95% of the 5-minute ground elevations (from the ETOPO-5 data) were above 1500 m. The surface temperature value was then derived from the model levels corresponding to the median value of the topography in that high elevation gridpoint, and averaged into the five regions illustrated in Figure 4. Linear trends (Figure 5) were calculated for the full 43-year period 1958-2000 and for a subset of years from 1974-1998, the latter period comprising a time of more rapidly rising temperatures and FLH change that comprises period studied by VB2000 using station data.

1990, 'Climate Change and Biological Diversity: Policy Implications, LandscapeEcological Impact of Climatic Change', in Boer, M. M. and de Groot, R. S. ), lOS Press, Amsterdam. : 1998, Land Ice on Earth: A Beginning of a Global Synthesis. Unpublished Transcript of the 1998 Walter B. Langbein Memorial Lecture, American Geophysical Union Spring Meeting, Boston, MA, 26 May 1998. : 2001, 'A New Typology for Mountains and other Relief Classes: An Application to Global Continental Water Resources and Population Distribution', Mount.

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