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By Virgilio Tosi

This vintage background of medical movie used to be released in Italian in 1984, and is receiving its first English ebook in a revised and up to date variation. Tosi demanding situations conventional histories of the cinema through arguing that late-nineteenth century series photographers Eadweard Muybridge and Etienne-Jules Marey weren't precursors of the leisure cinema yet of an essential background of clinical cinematography. Tosi describes the medical impulses in the back of Muybridge, Marey, different chronophotographers comparable to Jules Janssen, Albert Londe, and Georges Demeny, and demonstrates the interesting ways that surgeons, astronomers, ethnologists and biologists used movie within the earliest years of cinema.

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Extra resources for Cinema Before Cinema: The Origins of Scientific Cinematography

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Making films then meant crews of ten technicians, tons of camera and sound equipment, and responsibility for thousands of dollars. So it was obviously simpler to bring man to the studio and place him in front of the camera than to take the camera out to man. Johnny Weissmuller, the most famous king of the jungle, never left the sacred Hollywood forest; it was the African beasts and feathered Tubis that were brought onto the camera set. THE CAMERA AND MAN 33 You had to be crazy, as some ethnographers apparently were, to take such forbidden tools to the field.

8. For details see Dieterlen 1971; Stoller 1992, 174–91; also see “The Mad Fox and the Pale Master” and the Dogon section of “CinéAnthropology,” in this volume. 9. For a detailed discussion, see “On the Vicissitudes of the Self,” in this volume. Stoller (1992, 161–73) reviews Tourou et Bitti and the phenomenology of Songhay rituals. 10. See Rouch 1972 for the full text of the film and a gallery of photographs, commentaries, and interviews. Also see “CinéAnthropology,” in this volume. 11. See especially Eaton 1979; also, for example, Dumont 1978; Heider 1976, 1983; MacDougall 1975, 1976, 1978, 1998; Ruby 1980, 1982; Barnouw 1983, 253–62; Yakir 1978.

On the other hand, we should be aided by music that really supports an action, be it ritual, everyday, work rhythm, or dance. And although it is beyond the scope of this paper, I must mention the importance that sync filming will have in the field of ethnomusicology. Sound editing (background, speech, music) is undoubtedly as complex as picture editing. I believe that we still have enormous progress to make here in order to rid ourselves of prejudices we’ve come to via radio, prejudices that have led us to treat sound with more respect than image.

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