By Tony Saich
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Extra resources for China: Politics and Government
The role of the peasant associations was to be taken over by work teams sent in by the higher levels which would lead and co-ordinate the whole movement. The work of investigation, according to Liu, was to be carried out secretly by these teams which were to infiltrate the peasantry and discover the corrupt cadres. Liu and Deng effectively narrowed the scope of the movement with the promulgation of two documents. In September 1963 the 'Later Ten Points' prepared by Deng were published and one year later the 'Revised Later Ten Points' drawn up by Liu were published.
The scope of capital construction was reduced and work stopped on over 1000 construction projects. In 1962 it was proposed that investment for capital construction be lowered by 80 per cent and over 10 000 projects were stopped or scrapped. The workforce was greatly reduced as the 20 million or so peasan ts who had joined the industrial workforce during the Great Leap were returned to the countryside under the Hui Xiang (Return to the Villages) programme. These polieies were accompanied by an emphasis on material incentives as the main stimulant for increasing production and by a greater freedom for managers in determining policy in their own enterprises.
Also, the first approach would lead to a decrease in the influence of the Party, a crucial factor if mobilisation techniques rather than material incentives were to be used as the main stimulant for economic growth. Decentralisation to the regions would allow greater flexibility but it would not permit the growth of 'spontaneous capitalist tendencies' and would ensure continued Party control and conformity with central planning. This issue was one of the major items discussed at the Third plenum of the Eighth CC, which adoptcd the radical measurcs paving the way for the Great Lcap Forward.