Download Chemistry and radiation changes in the ozone layer by Christos S. Zerefos, Ivar S.A. Isaksen, Ioannis Ziomas PDF

By Christos S. Zerefos, Ivar S.A. Isaksen, Ioannis Ziomas

Fresh reviews have validated a hyperlink among ozone adjustments brought on by human actions and altering UV degrees on the Earth's floor, in addition to a hyperlink to weather via alterations in radiative forcing and hyperlinks to alterations in chemical composition. This booklet attracts jointly key scientists who offer cutting-edge contributions at the variable ozone layer and the interaction of longwave and shortwave radiative interactions which hyperlink ozone, the weather and UV matters.

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The six possible answers were: • • • • • • The same effort Half the effort of case A in case B Exactly corresponding to the risk (5%) Less than the probability (1%) Nothing, although I would do something in case A In case A I wouldn’t do anything either. In the survey the question was not what the students were willing to do personally, but what they felt would be reasonable for society to do. In a second step the students were asked to answer the same question not just for damages of 10% of the annual income, but for damages of 1% of the annual income, 10% of the annual income, 50% of the annual income, for irreversible damages, for serious health impacts and for loss of human lives.

Risk management aims at providing messages that can be easily understood by the potential users of the information (Schlumpf et al. 2001). As a result, transparency and openness become generally more important (Dessai et al. 2004) as they vastly improve the practical value of forecasting (Suarez and Patt 2004). The aim of the present paper is, therefore, to provide an illustrative example of climate research analysed and presented from a risk management perspective providing approximate, essential and quantitative information that is easy to understand, in this case aimed at the global policy makers responsible for setting climate stabilization targets.

Risks for grid cells where annual runoff is less than 100 mm/year on average during 1961–1990 are not considered. (Such desert areas cannot sustain rain-fed agriculture so that drought is not normally a risk; they also tend to be sparsely populated so the risk of flooding, which certainly exists, can more easily be circumvented). The logic adopted here assumes that both ecosystems and societies are adapted to current climate variability and that a threat mainly comes from a change outside this range, which manifests itself by a major increase in extreme events.

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