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By Val S. Lobanoff, Robert R. Ross

Functional reference stressing hydraulic layout, functionality prediction, research, and overview. New up to date variation is a useful reference software for engineers, designers, and scholars and a realistic, hands-on advisor for pump clients. DLC: Centrifugal pumps.

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Overhung or two-bearings design. • Close-coupled or coupled units. « Stiff shaft or flexible shaft design. • Single volute, double volute, quad volute. • Short elbow-type or turbine-type diffusers. • Mechanical seals or packing. « Stuffing boxes with bleed-offs or with clean flush injection. • Ball, sleeve, or Kingsbury-type bearings. • Oil rings, forced feed, oil mist, submerged or grease packed lubrication,, It can be seen from the variables listed that it is a complex job for a pump designer to design the right pump for the right environment.

Standardize the relationship between the number of vanes and discharge vane angle. The relationship shown in Figure 3-13 is suggested. Number and angularity of vanes greatly affect H-Q pump performance. Standardization as shown will lead to more accurate perfor mance prediction. • Figure 3-14 shows the effect of the number of impeller vanes in the same casing, on H-Q performance. Please note that with less vanes, the lower is the BEP head and efficiency and steeper is the shape of H-Q curve. » It is possible to maintain same BEP, Q, and efficiency by increasing b2 where number of vanes and angularity are reduced (Figure 3-15).

Impeller trims less than 80% of original diameter should be avoided since they result in a considerable drop in efficiency and might create unstable pump performance. Also, for pumps of high specific speed (2,500-4,000), impeller trim should be limited to 90% of original diameter. This is due to possible hydraulic problems associated with inadequate vane overlap. Model Law Another index related to specific speed is the pump modeling law. The "model law" is not very well known and usually applies to very large pumps used in hydroelectric applications.

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