By Daniel M. Hausman
Causation is asymmetrical in lots of alternative ways. factors precede results; motives cite explanations now not results. brokers use reasons to control their results; they do not use results to control their motives. results of a typical reason are correlated; motives of a typical impact are usually not. This booklet through one of many preeminent philosophers of technological know-how writing this present day deals the main complete account on hand of causal asymmetries. it's a significant booklet for philosophers of technology that might additionally end up insightful to economists and statisticians.
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Additional resources for Causal Asymmetries
VALBERG 8 If the object present in my experience is never part of the world, never an object whose existence is independent of the fact of its presence, what is it? What else could it be but an object whose existence is not independent of its presence in my experience, an internal object? For example, this object, the object present in my experience right now when I look at the book, is not an external object (part of the world). It is not a book, but an internal object. Generally, what is present in my experience, what is available for me to focus on and refer to demonstratively, is never part of the world but always an internal object; it is always (in the traditional jargon) a 'sense-datum'.
I conclude that this object, the object present to me when I look at the book, cannot be the book. It cannot be the book because, by the reasoning, it could survive the elimination of the book. So it, this object, is an internal object, something which exists only in so far as it is present in my experience. But wait, this object is a book. The object present to me when I look at the book on the table is the book on the table. There is nothing else there. Now I realise that, as a contribution to philosophy, thoughts of this sort may appear a trifle quick and simple-minded; yet it is precisely such thoughts that come over me when I reach the conclusion of the problematic reasoning.
Thus we live with it all the time. In bad faith we are not open to (we are closed off from) something we know: we are 'not open' in the way of being not open which requires our knowing that to which we are not open. In so far as we are not open to what we know, we can believe something that is inconsistent with what we know. Bad faith is a possibility for everyday consciousness. My idea (for what it is worth) is that there is a corresponding possibility for philosophical consciousness. 6 We can - this is 6 The problem philosophers usually discuss in connection with bad faith is whether, and how, we might characterise bad faith in a way that both does justice to what it is and yet The puzzle of experience 37 a possibility - reason ourselves into a state of being closed off from what We know.