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SnCI, and H,PtCI, on y-Al,O, reduced at 500 "C)having various Pt/Sn ratios, by Mossbauer methods indicate that various degrees of reduction of the intermediate tin oxides occur. At high ratios there is almost complete reduction, whereas at low ratios there are residual tin oxides. The tin-rich alloys, in which the Pt atoms are associated with larger numbers of Sn atoms, are less active perhaps because of the transfer of valency electrons from Sn into the 5d band of Pt. 80Care is taken to remove (by steaming) as much as possible of the chlorine remaining from the chlorides used in impregnation of the alumina, and stress is laid on the importance of the alkaline component.

4 013 735. W. R. Jackson, Proc. Roy. Austral. Chem. , 1976, 43, 198. l o 6 N. Choudhary and D. Saraf, Znd. Eng. , Prod. Res. , 1975, 14, 74. lo6 R. Maurel and G. Leclercq, Bull. chim. France, 1971, 1234. 2s The reaction on Pt caused fission mostly of one C-C bond whereas methane was the dominant product on Re; moreover, the rate of exchange of n-butane with deuterium was always faster than its hydrogenolysis. The rate of exchange with methane declined monotonically from Pt to Re; it exceeded the rate of hydrogenolysis at less than 60 wt % Re but was too slow to explain the rate of production of methane at greater proportions.

The Pt-Rh pair at ca. lo* Higher sulphate concentrations, probably reduced in situ to residual sulphide, cause loss of selectivity as well as the expected decrease in conversion. l12 Selectivity can be adjusted by presulphiding the catalysts ( 0 . 1 4 . g. the dealkylation of alkyl aromatics with Pt-(Co,Ni)-(Au,Ag,Cu)-(Ti,Hf,Nb,Ta oxides or a rare earth)/y-A1203113 (see p. 11). - - 9 Isomerization Double-bond shift and skeletal rearrangements are conducted, with few exceptions, in the presence of hydrogen, whence the name hydroisomerization, particularly under the more severe industrial conditions.

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