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By T. R. Oke

This contemporary climatology textbook explains the climates shaped close to the floor by way of the biking of power and mass via platforms

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Puddles), and soil pore water, and water transpired from vegetation. 17) on time periods of a day or less. This arises because the input/output processes are fundamentally different in nature. Precipitation usually occurs in discrete, short-period bursts, whereas evaporation is a continuous and variable function. Thus, for example, during periods with no precipitation water input is zero but the soil moisture store is being almost continually depleted by evapotranspiration. 20) because ∆r is negligible on level terrain.

In this way thermal energy from the solar energy cycle is converted into the kinetic energy of wind systems. The energy then participates in the kinetic energy cascade involving the transfer of energy to increasingly small scales of motion by turbulence. 1. Kinetic energy enters the cascade at a size-scale governed by the forces generating the motion. e. it 28 Boundary Layer Climates returns to the thermal portion of the solar energy cycle). 8 because on an annual basis there is a balance between kinetic energy production and dissipation.

1 where the arrows represent fluxes of energy into (Qin), and out of (Qout), the system volume. The length of the arrows represents the magnitude of the flux. 1 Schematic depiction of (a) vertical flux convergence, (b) vertical flux divergence and (c) horizontal flux divergence, in a volume. (ii) (iii) ∆QS) in the volume. 1a). The amount of the temperature change per unit of energy storage change will depend upon the thermal properties of the materials of the volume. Qin is less than Qout—if input is less than output the volume must be ∆QS) and hence losing energy, thereby depleting its energy store (-∆ cooling.

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