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Additional resources for Blood groups and red cell antigens
The FUT2 gene indirectly encodes a soluble form of the H antigen, which is found in bodily secretions. 9% of RBCs in all populations H antigen H deficiency is rare: it is found in 1 of 8,000 in Taiwan, 1 of 10,000 in India, and 1 per million in Europe (1). Frequency of the Blood group O: 45% in Caucasians, 49% in Blacks, 43% in Asians, and 55% in H phenotype Mexicans The frequency of the H antigen is equivalent to the frequency of blood group O in which the H antigen remains unaltered (1). Antibodies produced against the H antigen Anti-H type IgM is more common than IgG Anti-H is naturally occurring in people with H antigen deficiency.
The ABO locus has three main allelic forms: A, B, and O. The A and B alleles each encode a glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of the A and B antigen, respectively. The A/B polymorphism arises from several SNPs in the ABO gene, which result in A and B transferases that differ by four amino acids. The O allele encodes an inactive glycosyltransferase that leaves the ABO antigen precursor (the H antigen) unmodified. Chapter 5. The ABO blood group Page 1 of 8 Frequency of ABO blood group antigens Frequency of ABO phenotypes A: 43% Caucasians, 27% Blacks, 28% Asians B: 9% Caucasians, 20% Blacks, 27% Asians A1: 34% Caucasians, 19% Blacks, 27% Asians Note: Does not include AB blood groups (1).
Secretors" have at least one copy of the Se gene that encodes a functional enzyme—their genotype is Se/Se or Se/se. They secrete H antigen which, depending on their ABO genotype, is then processed into A and/or B antigens. Non-secretors are homozygous for null alleles at this locus (se/se). They are unable to produce a soluble form of H antigen and hence do not produce A and B antigens. References 1. Reid ME and Lomas-Francis C. The Blood Group Antigen Facts Book. Second ed. 2004, New York: Elsevier Academic Press.