By Michel Ter Hark (auth.)
Wittgenstein's aphoristic kind holds nice allure, but in addition an exceptional threat: the reader is apt to glean an excessive amount of from a unmarried fragment and too little from the fragments as an entire. In my first confron tations with the Philosophical Investigations i used to be this type of reader, and so, it became out, have been many of the writers on Wittgenstein's later philosophy. Wittgenstein's awesome skill to collect many features of his proposal in a single fragment is absolutely exploited within the severe literature; yet not often any recognition is paid to the relationship with different fragments, not to mention to the numerous hitherto unpublished manuscripts of which the Philosophical Investigations is the ultimate product. the results of this fragmentary and ahistorical method of Wittgenstein's later paintings is a bunch of contradictory interpretations. What Wittgenstein relatively desired to say continues to be insufficiently transparent. critiques also are strongly divided in regards to the price of his paintings. a few authors were inspired by way of his aphorisms and rhetorical inquiries to push aside the complete Cartesian culture or to halt new pursuits in linguistics or psychology; others, exasperated, reject his philo sophy as anti-scientific conceptual conservatism. After consulting unpublished notebooks and manuscripts which Wittgenstein wrote among 1929 and 1951, I grew to become a truly assorted reader. Wittgenstein grew to become out to be one of those Leonardo da Vinci, who pursued a kind from which each and every signal of chisel ling, each try out at development, were effaced.
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Additional resources for Beyond the Inner and the Outer: Wittgenstein’s Philosophy of Psychology
Section 2 discusses at greater length the pointlessness of sceptical approaches, with reference to unpublished manuscripts and On Certainty (OC). In § 3, finally, I reject biologistic and sociologistic interpretations of Wittgenstein's discussion of rules and agreement and instead argue an 'internalistic' interpretation. 1. Internal relations The problem brought up by Wittgenstein occurs under many forms in his work. In its most abstract form it concerns the internal relation between language and reality, between sign and meaning - Wittgenstein talks about the 'harmony of language or thought and reality' (d.
In the Philosophical Investigations Wittgenstein contests more and less explicitly the following external explanations of the relation between, among other things, rule and action. (1) The relation between rule and action is explained via a third, psychological kind of step: a mental image, an interpretation, a conditioning; I call this the psychologism fallacy. (2) The relation can be explained via the third step of human biological nature; I call this the biologism fallacy. (3) The relation can be explained via the third step of social pressure; I call this the sociologism fallacy.
Wittgenstein was already convinced of (i) in the Tractatus, but of (ii) and (iii) only in his later work. The terms of an internal relation cannot but have this relation to one another (i). In other words, the identification of A is eo ipso the identification of B. Or in more Wittgensteinian fashion: the criterion for the identity of an action is the criterion for the identity of a rule. What the psychologism fallacy amounts to is that it presents the comprehension of a rule as being independent of its application: It seems so clear here: it is one thing 'to understand a word' and another 'to apply it'.