By Victor R Preedy, Vinood B Patel, Kosha Mehta, R A Munoz-Clares, V S Melissas, T A Garrow, E E Howell, A Crego, M Curtis, P A Tatke, L Servillo, J Swierczynski, N C Danbolt, M Hiramatsu, M M Murphy, K K Kharbanda, H Zhu, H Y Chung, Kaisa Olli, Stuart Craig
Betaine is generally dispensed in vegetation and animals and has a task as an osmolyte and as a cofactor in methylation in liver metabolism. it's been proven to guard inner organs, enhance vascular chance elements and increase functionality. The becoming physique of proof indicates that betaine is a vital nutrient for the prevention of continual ailment. This quantity surveys the present nation of play in those and different parts of curiosity, together with its position in one-carbon metabolism, tissue biochemistry and interactions with folate and different biomolecules. The research of betaines utilizing assorted concepts is roofed, as is the functionality and results within the physique.
Written by means of knowledgeable foreign workforce, this booklet offers a desirable perception for people with an curiosity within the results of betaine on healthiness and the nutrition. it is going to allure throughout disciplines yet in particular to dietary and meals scientists, future health execs and researchers.
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Additional info for Betaine : chemistry, analysis, function and effects
Bhuiyan, M. N. , Shikata, M. , 2007. Metabolic engineering for betaine accumulation in microbes and plants. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282: 34185–34193. , Tanaka, Y. , 2009. Preferential accumulation of betaine uncoupled to choline monooxygenase in young leaves of sugar beet--importance of long-distance translocation of betaine under normal and salt-stressed conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology. 166: 2058–2070. , Tanaka, Y. , 2011. Expression and substrate specificity of betaine/proline transporters suggest a novel choline transport mechanism in sugar beet.
Stutte, G. W. and Levine, L. , 1999. How far can sodium substitute for potassium in red beet? Journal of Plant Nutrition. 22: 1745–1761. Subbarao, G. , Wheeler, R. , Levine, L. H. and Stutte, G. , 2001. Glycine betaine accumulation, ionic and water relations of red-beet at contrasting levels of sodium supply. Journal of Plant Physiology. 158: 767–776. , Nanmori, T. , 2006. Transcriptional response of glycinebetaine-related genes to salt stress and light in leaf beet. Plant Biotechnology. 23: 317–320.
2000). In vivo tracer experiments indicate that in the Chenopodiaceae, phosphocholine is hydrolyzed to choline. A member of the HAD (Haloacid Dehalogenase) superfamily was reported to act as phosphoethanolamine/ phosphocholine phosphatase in Arabidopsis. Ethanolamine kinase was partially purified from spinach leaf. Spinach ethanolamine kinase exhibited specificity towards ethanolamine exclusively. Based on sequence homology, ethanolamine kinase can be distinguished from choline kinases. The activity of the gene product has not yet been examined.