Download Basic physical chemistry for the atmospheric sciences by Peter V. Hobbs PDF

By Peter V. Hobbs

Up to date and revised, this hugely profitable textual content information the fundamental chemical ideas required for contemporary reports of atmospheres, oceans, and Earth and planetary platforms. This thoroughly available creation permits undergraduate and graduate scholars with little formal education in chemistry to know such basic techniques as chemical equilibria, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, resolution chemistry, acid and base chemistry, oxidation-reduction reactions, and photochemistry. within the better half quantity advent to Atmospheric Chemistry (also to be released in may possibly 2000), Peter Hobbs information atmospheric chemistry itself, together with its purposes to pollution, acid rain, the ozone gap, and weather swap. jointly those books supply an amazing advent to atmospheric chemistry for a number of disciplines.

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20) , prove that heat will not flow unaided from a cold to a hot body in an isolated system. State whether the following reactions are likely to result in an increase or decrease in the entropy of the system : (a) 3H 2 (g) + N z (g) - 2 NH 3 (g) (b) 2S02(g) + Oz (g) - 2S 0 3 (g) (c) 2C 2H6(g) + 702(g) - 4C0 2 (g) + 6 H20 (l) Use the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation in the form of Eq . ( 2 28) to determine the effect of temperature (T) on the spontaneity of chemical reactions for which (a) dh is negative and ds is positive , (b) dh is positive and ds is negative, (c) dh and ds are both negative , and (d) dh and ds are both positive .

3. 1 ) we have I d[A] a dt I d[ B ] b dt · · · I g d[G] dt I d[H ] h dt (3 . 2) where [A] , [B] , . . are the molar concentration s . Hence , any one of the quantities in Eq. ( 3 . 2) is referred to as the reaction rate for Reac­ tion (3 . 1 ) . The reaction rate is usuall y expres sed in units of mol L - 1 s - 1 (or M s - 1 , where M is molarity ) . M a n y reactions occur at a decreasing rate with increasing time . This is because the reaction rate diminishes as the concentrations of the reactants diminis h .

Maximum molecular chaos) . Con­ sider, for example, the reaction H2(g) � 2H(g). (b) The development of life (a relatively ordered state) on Earth does not contradict the second law of thermody­ namics . (c) The work done by a system in a reversible process is greater than the work done by the system in an irrevers­ ible proces s between the same two states . " (e) Water can freeze spontaneously below 0°C even though this produces a decrease in the entropy of the system. (f) Some exothermic chemical reactions do not occur spon­ taneously.

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