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By I. McFarlane

In the 10 years because the first variation of this e-book seemed there were major advancements in nutrients technique engineering, particularly in biotechnology and membrane program. Advances were made within the use of sensors for approach keep an eye on, and the expansion of data expertise and online laptop purposes keeps apace. moreover, plant funding judgements are more and more decided through caliber coverage issues and feature to include a better emphasis on healthiness and issues of safety. The content material of this variation has been rearranged to incorporate descriptions of modern advancements and to mirror the impact of recent know-how at the keep watch over and operations of automatic plant. unique examples were retained the place proper and those, including many new illustrations, offer a finished consultant to stable practice.

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Extra resources for Automatic Control of Food Manufacturing Processes

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Downloading of a recipe to a mixer PLC is controlled by a lower level password. All aspects of the plant are displayed graphically, allowing process monitoring and fault diagnosis from the central control room. A report for each batch is logged at each mixer. Ingredient usage and stock management information are provided; there is a separate production information system with a 7000 item database connected to the control system by a local area network (LAN). As well as improved accuracy the new system has less downtime than the system it replaced.

1992) showed that NMR is more successful than surface NIR for assessing the ripeness of some thick-skinned fruit such as cherries and grapes. Another application for nuclear magnetic resonance has been magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involving magnetic field gradients and examination of magnetic echoes. The equipment is cumbersome, but Sun et al. (1993) were able to map two-dimensional temperature gradients in 25 mm diameter cylindrical capsules of food gels, and the technique offers a method for observing, for example, progress of crystallisation in chocolate.

1 Extrusion cooker feeding system. 1, feeding bin; 2, variable speed screw; 3, liquid ingredients; 4, slurry; 5, extruder cooker; 6, steam; 7, knife. (After Hauck, 1981). 40 AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF FOOD MANUFACTURING PROCESSES feed hopper. 5%. Similar accuracy is obtainable from carefully mounted belt-weighers, in which the dry material is laid on a weigh-belt in a layer of uniform thickness controlled by a mechanical gate. The feedrate is measured continuously by monitoring weight and speed, and controlled by varying either the height of the mechanical gate or, more usually, the speed ofthe belt.

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