Download Atmospheric Turbulence: Models and Methods for Engineering by Hans A. Panofsky PDF

By Hans A. Panofsky

Provides, in one quantity, an up to date precis of the present wisdom of the statistical features of atmospheric turbulence and an creation to the tools required to use those information to useful engineering difficulties. Covers simple physics and information, statistical homes emphasizing their habit on the subject of the floor, and functions for engineers.

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1986). 6 Distribution of ground ice Although several modes of formation of ice masses in permafrost are well understood, it is often difficult to predict the nature and extent of ice in the ground. Ice inclusions observed in cores obtained by drilling are often impossible to describe according to origin. Indeed, even in large exposures it is difficult to judge the shape of the whole mass, let alone its origin. It is rare that an ice wedge, for example, is exposed such as to reveal a wedge shape.

They may be merely buried snow or lake ice; it is also possible that sometimes they develop within the permafrost many years after its formation. Much of this ground ice is not revealed by any characteristic surface relief. However, when degradation of permafrost occurs the disappearance of the ground ice can, if abundant, give rise to a terrain known as thermokarst. There are many pits and depressions, and a sequence of striking surface changes occur. Ultimately, the surface may have abundant water bodies, around the margins of which (in forested areas) are leaning trees and innumerable slumps of soil, mud flows and landslides.

Recrystallisation occurs with time and in association with changes of temperature and stress. Ice in the ground reflects these circumstances, and the various forms show diversity in crystal structure (0strem 1963b). It might seem, therefore, that studies of the crystallography would be an extremely valuable tool in studying the origin of such ice but they have not been widely used. E. Penner (1961) found that ice segregations in frost-heaved laboratory samples were composed of small crystals orientated with their long axes in the direction of the heat flow during the segregation.

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