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By Tom Rockmore, Beth J Singer

The talk over foundationalism, the point of view that there exists a few safe origin upon which to construct a procedure of wisdom, seems to be to were resolved and the antifoundationalists have not less than briefly prevailed. From a firmly ancient process, the publication lines the foundationalism/antifoundationalism controversy within the paintings of many vital figures—Animaxander, Aristotle and Plato, Augustine, Descartes, Hegel and Nietzsche, Habermas and Chisholm, and others—throughout the heritage of philosophy. The members, Joseph Margolis, Ronald Polansky, Gary Calore, Fred and Emily Michael, William Wurzer, Charlene Haddock Siegfried, Sandra B. Rosenthal, Kathleen Wallace, and the editors current good the variety, curiosity, and roots of antifoundationalism.

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These premises are: the natural desire of humans is for self-sufficiency ([369b]; this opposes the Thrasymachean assumption that humans naturally desire to outdo each other [359C]); this desire for self-sufficiency can be satisfied only in association with fellow human beings; and humans naturally differ in ability (37oa-b). Because of the inequality in ability, an association established on the principle that each does what each is best qualified to do will best provide for self-sufficiency. The supposition that humans are unequal in ability is shared by Socrates and Thrasymachus.

34. Roderick M. Chisholm, The First Person:An Essay on Referenceand Intentionality (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1981), pp. 7980. , p. 89· 36. Martin Heidegger, Being and Time, trans. from 7th ed. John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson (New York: Harper and Row, 1962), pp. 36-37 (pp. 15-16 in the German pagination). 37. , p. 86 (p. 59 in the German pagination); cf. Introduction, chap. 1. 38. , p. 87 (p. 60 in the German pagination). 39. , pp. 40, 41 (pp. 18, 19 in the German pagination).

Hence, the mythic source, Being, somehow "sends" discernible messages to man (his historical "destiny," for instance) in a way that can be enunciatively proclaimed. But that is utterly preposterous and brings us back again to Anaximander. VIII The critical insight of Anaximander's groping improvement on the Milesian cosmology rests with his recognition of the dialectical significance of the Opposites or paired concepts by which any perceivable order of things is rendered intelligible. The insight is this: 34 JOSEPH MARGOLIS (i) that all concepts are privative; and (ii) that to specify what of reality is not captured by particular sets of concepts is to employ other concepts that are equally privative.

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