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By Benjamin C. Jantzen

The heritage of layout arguments stretches again to earlier than Aquinas, who claimed that issues which lack intelligence however act for an finish to accomplish the simplest consequence. even though technological know-how has complicated to discredit this declare, it continues to be actual that many organic platforms reveal outstanding variations of potential to ends. types of layout arguments have endured over the centuries and feature culminated in theories that suggest an clever fashion designer of the universe. This quantity is the single accomplished survey of 2,000 years of discussion, drawing on either ancient and glossy literature to spot, make clear, and examine significantly the numerous different types of layout argument for the life of God. It offers a impartial, informative account of the subject from antiquity to Darwin, and contains concise primers on chance and cosmology. it will likely be of serious worth to upper-level undergraduates and graduates in philosophy of faith, theology, and philosophy of technology.

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17 refers to Book II, passage 17. Sometimes I provide page numbers in a footnote where particular quotations can be found, but these page numbers refer only to the specific translation I have used, namely Cicero 1998. 25 The character Cotta is Cicero's mouthpiece in the dialogues. Cotta represents the skeptical Academic school with which Cicero identifies himself. 26 Some authors consider a fifth type of argument, taking the fact that the world con­ tains beauty as a premise. " But I would argue that this is merely an extension of the argument from providence, and so will group the two (beauty and providence) together.

But in outline, Socrates says that whatever exists for beneficial purposes must be the result of reason, not of chance. He then points to a number of biological adaptations such as the eye that, by his reckoning, clearly serve beneficial purposes such as seeing. From this, he concludes that a god exists. He then goes on to describe the numerous ways in which the world has been crafted for the apparent benefit of mankind, particu­ larly for human pleasure. He uses these facts to argue that not only was the world created, but the creator has special concern for man.

Some of this work will be left to later chapters where fresh terminology is introduced as it is needed. In this chapter, we'll consider a few simple design arguments based on the case studies of Chapter 1 and introduce just enough technical jargon to get us through our first set of historical arguments. 2 Arguments and their parts Consider the following argument for the existence of God based on features of the parasitic wasps we considered in case study 3 of the last chapter: Example 1 The egg-laying ovipositor ofthe wasp Megarhyssa is builtjust right to function as an efficient drill.

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