By I M Kolthoff
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In equation (8); There and a direct not possible. SbRENSEN 2 has eliminated the unknown [A] and obtained the expression: H+]* - Kb ) a Jg (K jg (K This equation is ac -Kw )-j* KaK* = too inconvenient for practical use. 0. (9) Its general solu- tion can not be given. The author, therefore, suggests that equation (8) be used in calculations, assuming as a first approximation that the concentration of undissociated ampholyte, is equal to the total concen- [A], thus neglect the dissociation of the amphoteric compound into cations and anions.
This procedure permits us to approximate a value of [H+] which, when substituted in (6) and tration c. (7), yields able to We corresponding values of [A+ ] and [A~]. the following correction: We are now make [A] The same = c - [A+] - [A-]. may be repeated with the new [A] value. Usually the first approximation is sufficient to yield the correct [H+], although the calculation may be made any required numcalculation ber of times. From equation (8) we see that: (a) The error in the approximate calculation becomes smaller as the concentration c increases.
The modern theory of strong electrolytes does not exclude of the undissociated molecules. The concenentirely presence tration of these molecules, however, is so small as to be negligible. Hydrogen chloride is considered a strong electrolyte in aqueous no longer the case in solvents in which solution, although this is the dissociation constant of HC1 is smaller. The dissociation constant in water can be calculated approximately from the acid strength in ethyl alcohol. The order of magnitude of this constant is found to be 10+ 2 Hence .